How Evaporation Steals Heat
EVERY time a liquid evaporates into a gas, it snatches a definite amount of heat from its container and surrounding air, cooling both below their original temperatures. This law of physical chemistry has long been useful to the human race as a means of cooling foods or drinks. Primitive man found that water placed in unglazed earthenware vessels would seep through the pores, evaporate, and cool the water remaining inside. Campers and country dwellers still cool water in this way.
Today, all our mechanical refrigerators, electric and gas alike, harness the cooling effect of evaporation. Alternately compressed into a liquid and allowed to expand into a gas, the refrigerant absorbs heat during each evaporation cycle.
It’s funny how sometimes people have all the information they need but they don’t put it together. This article talks about X-Raying people’s heads to immunize them against getting a cold, then about how X-Rays increase the rate of mutation by 150 times in experiments. In hindsight it seems obvious to ask if irradiating your head with a mutating beam of energy is a good idea. Though I guess that’s better than using X-Rays to shave.
X-Ray Solves Secret of Life
Thanks to the discovery of X-ray, secrets of man and metal lay revealed to the world today. Continued study with this tool of science is destined to uncover further mysteries of life and plunge man into fabulous adventures that may change civilization.
IF YOU break an arm today, chances are the broken member will be thoroughly X-rayed before and after the fracture is set. But don’t walk out of the hospital X-ray room believing the only use of the X-ray is for examination of broken bones.
The X-ray is more than the tool of the surgeon. It is a force in the change of civilization. So great a force is it in changing of sex, the reduction of infection, radio and telephone, and a score of other fields that scientists are beginning to wonder if it is not the single greatest force shaping our development toward the Utopia towards which all scientific achievement points.
Millikan is most famous for being the first person to determine the charge of a single electron. Apparently his work on cosmic rays was less important or correct. He believed that cosmic rays were high energy photons as opposed to charged particles. He was wrong. This quote from his Wikipedia entry caught my eye though:
Millikan thought the cosmic ray photons were the “birth cries” of new atoms continually being created by God to counteract entropy and prevent the heat death of the universe.
MYSTERIOUS COSMIC RAYS TRAPPED FOR STUDY IN SCIENTISTS BASEMENT
Study of cosmic rays, mysterious radiations from space, more penetrating than X-rays, has been brought out of the laboratory and placed on a more homely basis by recent tests. Putting in his own basement the bomb-like detector shown in the photograph above, Dr. Robert A. Millikan, California physicist (right) found the rays streamed through the roof and walls of his house without appreciable hindrance. Meanwhile University of Chicago experimenters accidentally discovered that the human head absorbs five percent of the cosmic rays that strike it while the rest pass through.
Science Remakes the Dog
How Breeders Are Changing The Appearance and Nature Of Our Canine Population To Bring Out the Qualities That Are Made Desirable By Modern Living Conditions
By Jesse F. Gelders
DOGS are getting smaller. Subject to style trends, the same as clothing, automobiles, and houses, they are adapting themselvesâ€” or, rather, being adaptedâ€”to the changed conditions of modern life.
People today are demanding dogs that can live in small homes or apartments, and ride in automobiles, without crowding out their human companions; dogs that can keep fit with a minimum of exercise; smart, good-natured dogs, andâ€”an important consideration, sometimesâ€”dogs that will not eat their masters out of house and home.
USING A MICROSCOPE FOR Polarized Light Experiments
By H. J. Sexton and O. M. Freeman
WITH apparatus costing less than two dollars to make, the amateur microscopist can now produce and observe polarized light. This opens up a field hitherto limited by the prohibitive cost of the required accessories. It enables the amateur to witness the most beautiful phenomena and conduct the most delicate investigations of which the microscope is capable.
Nowhere in nature are to be found more astonishing and magnificent displays of variegated color effects or more exact delineations than those produced by polarized light in its passage through a simple slide made from a strip of mica, or a thin section of horn or quill. No degree of magnification, however high, will so clearly resolve the limits and boundaries of a specimen composed of layers normally transparent to ordinary light.
Here is an amazing, huge National Geographic article/pictorial about the state of nuclear science and technology in 1958. Be sure to check out this crazy picture of mice being taped down on a model train that’s about to be driven through a particle accelerator.
YOU AND THE OBEDIENT Atom
Abundant energy released from the hearts of atoms promises a vastly different and better tomorrow for all mankind
By ALLAN C. FISHER, JR.,
Senior Editorial Staff, National Geographic Magazine
THOUGH man may reach for the moon and the planets, he has found the richest of all new worlds behind the familiar face of his everyday environment. Here, deep in the mysterious cosmos of inner space, lies that world within a world, the powerful, obedient atom.
So small are nature’s basic building blocks that you could put 36 billion billion atoms on the head of a pin. Yet these unimaginably tiny particles work like genii at man’s bidding. Their peaceful energy is gradually shaping our world into a far better place.
Home Science Stunts with Soap
by Prof. Victor Lewitus
Make a strong soap solution by mixing shaving soap and water. After taking a puff on a cigarette, blow the smoke through a bubble pipe to make a soap bubble. The inside of the bubble then will contain the white smoke, and when it breaks, it does so with a puff, furnishing a very striking experiment. A clay or corncob pipe will be more suitable than the briar variety, inasmuch as the soap mixture probably will make the pipe unsuited for further smoking.
Three Magic Metals
Producing Cold With Electricity and A “Quicksilver Heart” That Beats Are Only Two of the Amazing Tests You Can Perform Easily With Simple Substances
By Raymond B. Wailes
YOU are accustomed to seeing an electric element in a toaster or radiant heater grow red-hot when current passes through itâ€”but did you know that when electricity flows through joints of certain metals, it produces a cooling effect? Have you ever made a drop of murcury behave as if it were alive or prepared a pair of magical alloys that are solids when separate, and a liquid when mixed?
These are a few of the fascinating experiments that you can perform with metals, using three in particular that you may not have employed before in your home laboratoryâ€”mercury, antimony, and bismuth.
Jackie Bates works harder, has lonelier life than most of her ex-classmates, but makes more money, likes her profession
Chemistry, once strictly a man’s profession, has become increasingly hospitable to women. The expansion of industrial chemistry has helped. Women are particularly in demand for delicate laboratory work that requires small hands, finger dexterity and painstaking attention to detail. With job opportunities opening in the field, more college girls than ever before have been preparing for careers in chemistry.
NEW FEATS OF Chemical Wizards REMAKE THE WORLD WE LIVE IN
By ALDEN P. ARMAGNAC
IMAGINE a ball of fiber, weighing only one pound, of so fine a texture that if unrolled it would reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific! This marvel of chemistry, exhibited when American chemists recently assembled at Kansas City, Mo., to compare their achievements, is the latest kind of rayon, or artificial silk. A garment made from it can be hidden in the palm of the hand. To produce it, laboratory workers have gone the silkworm one betterâ€”for it measures one third thinner than natural silk. Improvements in methods of purifying the wood pulp that serves as its raw material, and in the chemical solutions and machinery used in its manufacture, have combined to make its production possible.